25 November 2013

My "Hobbit" movie review published in Mallorn

"Well, I'm back".

After 8 months of inactivity, I shall return to write in my blog. I apologize for my absence, but I was completely focused in my university studies. I hope I can post at least two new entries next December.

But while that happens, I just wanted to share some fantastic news that happened this year: 
 My "Hobbit" movie review, which I wrote almost a year ago, was published in Mallorn, the Tolkien Society's Journal this May 2013. 

Mallorn 54 had a section dedicated exclusively for movie reviews, so I sent my review and gladfully it was accepted. I even received a physical copy of the journal because I was a contributor ^^. I must thank Henry Gee, the editor of Mallorn, for accepting my review and for sending me a copy. 

My name in the Tolkien's Society Journal? I am truly speechless, it's definitely a dream that became true. I hope this is not the last time a piece of writing of mine is published in this journal. 

I share a few pictures of the journal:

07 March 2013

Quenya words existing in other languages

Hasn't it ever happened to you, that when you come upon certain Quenya words, you realize the same word exists in your language, or in a language you are familiar with? It has happened several times to me, so I decided to take Helge Fauskanger's Quenya-English Wordlist and go word by word to find out which words have a meaning (not necessarily the same one, mostly not) in languages I am familiar with. 

I found many words existing mostly in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Catalan and Latin, languages I have some knowledge of. Thanks to Milla Leskinen, who helped me by identifying  words in Quenya that exist in Finnish, to Celebrinthal for identifying words in Polish, Japanese and German, among others, to Metaflora for Hungarian words, to Emma Flacking, for Swedish and Norwegian, to John Karpo for Greek and to Kastytis Zubovas for Lithuanian. J. R. R. Tolkien knew Finnish and Latin, so Quenya words existing in these languages probably are not coincidences, whether they have the same meaning or not, but most likely, Professor Tolkien wasn't aware of all the word coincidences we have found. I have not included the matches with the English language, since no doubt Tolkien knew if this Quenya word existed in English. Occasionally I used a dictionary to double-check the word's definitions.

I first list the words in Quenya, followed by language and the meaning it has in it. I hope you enjoy it, and of course, if you read Helge's wordlist and find words in languages not listed here, or words missing, or any corrections you would like to make, please contact me!

Finally, towards the end of the writing of this entry, I found an essay called "Similarities between natural languages and Tolkien's Eldarin", by Roman Rausch, in which you can find, among many other interesting things, a list of matches between Noldorin/Sindarin and Welsh and Irish, and a list of matches in other languages, but in which the meanings are very similar or at least related.


aina- (1) vb. “to hallow, bless, treat as holy”. (2) adj "holy". Finnish: "always".

Aino noun "god". Finnish: character in The Kalevala.

airë: (1) adj. "holy". (2) noun "sea". Spanish: “air”.

airon noun “ocean”. Finnish: genitive sing. form of "oar".

ala: (1) imperative particle á, a combined with the negation , -la "not" to express a prohibition . 2) prep “after, beyond”. ala- (3) negative prefix "not", "un-", reduced to al- before a vowel. (4), also al-, a prefix expressing “good” or “well”. Spanish: “wing". Finnish: "under".

alas (alast-) noun "marble". Spanish: “wings". Finnish: "down". Greek: "salt".

Aldëa noun, what the Númenóreans called the fourth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to Telperion, the White Tree. Early "Qenya" also has an adjective aldëa "tree-shadowed". Spanish: “village”.

alma (1) noun "good fortune, weal, wealth". (2) “flower”. Spanish, Italian and Portuguese: “soul.” Greek: "jump". Hungarian: "apple".

alta (1) adj. "large, great in size". (2) noun "radiance. Spanish and Portuguese: “tall”. Finnish: "from under".

ama adv.? element not glossed, evidently meaning "up" like the prefix am-. Spanish: “he/she loves”. Greek: "when".

aman adj. "blessed, free from evil". Spanish: “they love”.

ambar (1) ("a-mbar") noun "oikumenē [Greek: the earth as the human habitation], Earth, world". (2) noun "fate, doom" (3) noun "”breast” (chest). Spanish: “amber”, a yellow-orange fossil resin.

ambos (ambost-) noun “breast” (chest). Spanish: both

Anar noun "Sun". Catalan: “to go”.

anat conj. "but". Catalan: past-participle of “anar”.

anda adj. "long", “far”. Spanish: “he/she is/goes”.

ando (1) noun "gate", also name of tengwa #5. (2) adv. "long". Spanish: “I go/am”.

anel noun “daughter”. Portuguese: “ring”.

anna noun "gift", “a thing handed, brought or sent to a person”, also name of tengwa #23. Feminine name in several languages. Finnish: 2nd person imperative form of "to give".

anta- (1) vb. "give". (2) noun "face". Finnish: "to give" (antaa).

apa prep. (1) "after"; (2) "on", as in contact with physical surface. (3) conj. "but". Hungarian: "father".

aqua adv. "fully, completely, altogether, wholly". Latin: “water”.

Ára (1) noun "dawn" ara: (2)  prep.(and adv.?) "outside, beside, besides". (3) "noble". Catalan: “now.” Greek: "therefore".

aran noun "king". Spanish: “they till”.

arca (1) adj. “narrow” (2) vb. "pray". Spanish: “ark”. Finnish: "timid".

arma noun “a ray of sunlight”. Spanish: "weapon". Greek: "chariot, tank, weapon":

armar noun "goods" (pl.) Spanish: “to build, to arm”. Swedish: "arms".

artë prep. with pron. suffix "beside them”. Spanish, Portuguese and Italian: “art.”

asa prefix denoting easiness in doing. Portuguese: "wing".

asta (1) noun "month", a division of the year. (2) vb. “to heat, bake (by exposure to sun)”. Spanish: "pole".

atar noun "father". Spanish: “to tie".

atya (1) adj. "second". (2) noun "daddy", supposedly a word in "actual family use"; also used in children's play for "thumb" and "big toe". Hungarian: "father".

auta- (1) vb. "go away, leave" (leave the point of the speaker's thought). (2) vb. "invent, originate, devise". Finnish: 2nd person imperative form of "to help". Polish: common for "cars".

avar noun "recusant, one who refuses to act as advised or commanded". Hungarian: "dead fallen leaves".


caivo noun "corpse". Finnish: "well" (kaivo).

cal- vb. "shine. Spanish: “lime”; Catalan: "one needs to". Thanks to Ann for this one.

cala noun "light". Spanish: a type of flower. Finnish: "fish" (kala). Polish: "whole" (cała, "ł" sounds like English "w".

callo noun "noble man, hero". Spanish: "callus, also 1st person present form of "to shut up". Finnish: "skull" (kallo).

calma noun "lamp, a light, device for shining light”. Spanish: “calm”. Finnish: "death" (kalma,  archaic form).

calpa (1) noun "water-vessel", "bucket, vessel". (2) vb. "draw water, scoop out, bale out". Finnish: "sword" (kalpa, archaic form).

cáma noun “guilt, responsibility”. Spanish: “bed”.

cana prep? "behind, at back of place". Spanish: “gray hair”. Finnish: "chicken" (kana).

canasta fraction "one fourth" (1/4). Spanish: “basket”.

cáno noun "commander", usually as the title of a lesser chief, especially one acting as the deputy of one higher in rank. Portuguese: pipe.

cansat fraction "one fourth" (1/4). Catalan: “tired”.

canta (1) cardinal "four". (2) noun “shape”. Spanish:  3rd person sing. present tense "to sing ". Finnish: "to carry" (kantaa).

canya adj. "bold". Catalan: a small beer.

carda noun “deed”. Portuguese: “teasel”, a type of flower.

carnë adj. "red", “scarlet, red”. Spanish: “meat”.

carpa  (1) noun “mouth”, including lips, teeth, tongue etc., also used for “language”, in particular the phonetic system. (2) intransitive vb. “talk, speak, use tongue”. Spanish: “tent”.

cas “head”. Spanish: a type of fruit.

Casar noun "Dwarf". Spanish: “to marry”.

cassa noun "helmet". Italian: “box”.

casta (1) fraction "one fourth" (1/4). (2) noun "cause" (reason). Spanish: "breed, caste".

certa noun "rune". Portuguese: indefinite pronoun "some”.

cesta- vb. “to seek, search for”. Spanish: “basket”.

circa noun "sickle". Italian and Latin: "around,close to, near".

cíta-  vb. “suppose”. Spanish: “a quote”, “a date”. Finnish: "mouth, esp. of an animal" (kita).

cólo noun "burden". Portuguese: “lap”, also 1st person sing. present tense of “to glue”.  Spanish: 1st person sing. present tense of “to strain”.

costa- vb. "quarrel". Spanish and Portuguese: "coast"; Latin: "rib; side".

cotto noun “enemy”. Italian: “baked”.

 noun "arch, crescent"; "crescent Moon". Portuguese: “ass”; Spanish: name of the letter "q".

cúna (1) adj. "bent, curved". (2) cúna- vb. "bend". Spanish: “a cradle”. Polish: "marten" (kuna).


en (1) interjection "there, look! yon (yonder)" . (2), also ena, adv. “still”. (3) particle that may be inserted before a past tense form to indicate that it refers to a remote past. (4) prefix "again-", “re-“. Spanish: “in”.

es unidentified word in the phrase es sorni heruion an! "the Eagles of the Lords are at hand" possibly an assimilated form of en, that may function as a kind of deitic particle here: *"Behold the Eagles...". Spanish: 3rd person present of verb “to be”.

esta- (1) vb. "to name" .(2) adj. "first". Spanish: “this”, feminine form.

Estë fem name "Repose, Rest". Hungarian: "evening". Spanish: "this", masculine form.

esto emphatic pronoun (?), apparently 3rd person dual, “even the two of them”. Spanish: “this”, neutral form. Finnish: "inhibition".

et prep. (and adv.?) "out", when followed by ablative "out of". French and Latin: “and”.


falas (falass-), falassë noun "shore, beach". Portuguese: 2nd person sing. present tense of “to speak”.

fallë noun "foam”. Spanish: sing. present subjunctive of “miss”.

fanya noun "(white) cloud, sky" (plural fanyar). Hungarian: "wry" (fanyar).

fára noun "beach, shore". Catalan and Portuguese: 3rd person sing. perfect future tense of “to make”.

fëa noun "spirit". Spanish: “ugly”.

finca adj. “clever” (in petty ways): Spanish: “big area of land, estate”.

finë (1) noun "a hair" or "larch". (2) noun “dexterity”. Italian: “end”.

finta- (1) vb. “to make, finish off, or decorate a thing with delicate work”. (2) vb. “show skill”. Spanish and Portuguese: “feint”.

forma noun "right hand". Spanish, Polish, Portuguese and probably more languages:  “shape, form”.

fortë adj. "northern". Italian and Latin: “strong” (fors).

Fui noun "Night". Spanish: 1st person past tense of “to go”.

fúmë noun "sleep". Spanish: subjunctive present of “to smoke”.


hala (1) noun "(small) fish". (2) noun ”a cast shadow”. Spanish: 3rd person sing. present tense of “ to pull”. Hungarian: "fish" (hal) (thanks to Milla for this one). Polish: "hall".

halla adj. "tall. Finnish: "frost". Spanish: 1st person sing. present tense of "to find".

hampa adj. “restrained, delayed, kept”. Spanish: “underworld, in a criminal sense”

hanno noun "brother", also used in children's play for "middle finger". Italian: 3rd person sing. present  tense of “to have”.

hellë noun "sky". Finnish: "very hot weather." 

héra: adj. "chief, principal". Finnish: "whey".

noun "spirit, shadow". Hungarian: "snow".

horta- vb. "send flying, speed, urge". Catalan and Portuguese: “garden”.


ilma noun "starlight". Finnish: "air".

indo (1) noun “heart, mood” (2) noun “house”. Portuguese: gerund of “to go”.

inga (1) noun "top, highest point". (2) adj. "first". Hungarian:  "pendulum".

írë (1) noun "desire". Spanish: 1st person sing. future tense of “to go”.

ista (1) noun "knowledge". (2) vb. "know". Latin: "that".

ita- (1) vb. "sparkle". (2) adv. “very, extremely”. (3) pron “that which”. Latin: “this way, thus”.


la negation "no, not". Spanish: "the" (feminine form).

laica (1) adj. "green". (2) adj. "keen, sharp, acute, piercing". Spanish: “not religious”.

laita- vb. "bless, praise". Finnish: "side".

láma noun "ringing side, echo". Finnish: "economic depression". Polish: "llama".

lanca noun "sharp edge (not of tools); sudden end". Finnish: "string".

lanco noun "throat, swallow". Finnish "brother-in-law".

lanta noun " a fall". lanta- vb. "to fall". Finnish "manure".

lappa noun "hem of robe". Swedish: "to patch" (somewhat related, maybe?)

lapsë noun "babe". Finnish "child"( lapsi).

lar (1) noun "fat, riches". Spanish, Portuguese and Latin: “hearth, home”. Also the Roman gods associated with these.

láta adj. "open". Spanish: “can”. Polish: "years".

lávar noun “(golden) blossom”. Spanish: “to wash” (lavar).

le, pronominal element "you", (originally) the "reverential 2nd person sing". Spanish: dative personal pronoun “to him/her”.

lëo noun "shade, shadow cast by any object". Latin: “lion”.

lin- prefix "many". Polish: "tench"; also pl. genitive form of lina, "line".

linda adj. "fair, beautiful" (of sound), “soft, gentle, light”. Spanish: “pretty, beautiful” (feminine form).

lindo noun "singer, singing bird". Spanish: pretty (masculine form).

lis noun "honey". Polish: "fox".

(1) noun "night". (2) prep. "from", also used as "by", introducing the agent after a passive construction: nahtana ló Túrin (slain by Túrin). Hungarian: "horse". 

loa, noun literally "growth". Spanish: a Spanish theatrical play.

loar noun “(golden) blossom”. Spanish: “to praise”.

lúcë ("k") noun "enchantment". Italian and Latin (ablative sing.): “light”.

luhta- (1) vb. "to enchant". (2) vb. "to bow". Finnish"flood meadow". 

luita- vb. "to flood". Finnish: "some bones". 

lúmë (1) noun "time". (2) noun "darkness". Portuguese: “fire, light” (it has the opposite meaning in Quenya!) In Romanian apparently it means “World”. Italian: "light".

lúna (1) adj. “dark”. Spanish and Italian: “Moon”.

lúto noun "flood". Spanish: “mourning”.


ma, (1) neuter personal pronoun "something, a thing". Italian: “but”. Polish: he/she/it "has". Hungarian: "today".

noun "hand. Catalan: "hand" (mà) - same meaning! 

maca- vb. "to forge metal". Catalan: “pretty” (feminine form). Polish: "matza"; 3rd person of "palpate".

mai (1) adv. "well" (2) conj. "if". Italian: “never”. German: the month "May".

mahta- vb. "wield a weapon”, “fight", "to handle, wield, manage". Finnish"to be able" (mahtaa).

mal conj. "but". Spanish: “evil” (noun). German: "time".

mala- vb. "hurt, pain". Spanish: “evil” (feminine singular adjective). Polish: "small" - feminine singular (mała). Lithuanian: he/she/it "grinds, mills".

malina adj. "yellow, golden". Polish: "raspberry". 

malo (1) noun "pollen, yellow powder". (2) noun “moth”. Spanish: “evil” (masculine singular adjective). Polish: "little" (mało), adverb.

málos noun "forest". Spanish: “evil” (masculine plural adj.)”

malta noun "gold", also name of tengwa #18. Spanish: “malt”.

máma noun "sheep". Word for "mom" in several languages, such as Spanish and Polish.

manca- vb. "trade". Italian: “left hand”; 3rd person present tense of “to miss”.

mar (1) noun "earth" (world), also "home, dwelling, mansion". (2) noun "house" in the sense of family. (3) vb. "abide, be settled or fixed". Spanish: “sea”.

me 1st person pl. exclusive pronoun "we, us". Spanish, Latin and Italian: accusative 1st person sing. Personal pronoun.

mel- vb. "love (as friend)". Portuguese and Latin: “honey”.

menta- (1) vb. "send, cause to go" (in a desired direction). (2) noun "sending" or "message". Spanish: “mint”.

mi prep. "in, within". Spanish: possessive 1st person sing pronoun "my". Polish: "me", dative form.

mil "in you" (sg.), Spanish: “a thousand”. Polish: "miles", genitive form.

millë "in you" (pl.) Italian: a thousand”.

mína adj. "desiring to start, eager to go", also verb mína- "desire to go in some direction, to wish to go to a place, make for it, have some end in view". Spanish: "a mine". Swedish: 1st person pl. possesive pronoun "my". Polish: "face (as in making a face); a mine (bomb).

minna prep. "to the inside, into". Japanese: "everyone".

mir (1) prep. "to the inside, into". (2) cardinal "one". Archaic word in old Polish, Russian, Czech and others,  meaning "peace" (thanks to Celebrinthal for this one)!

misil noun "silver (jewel-like) brilliance". Spanish: "missile".

móla adj. “of slave(s), slavish”. Catalan: “cool”. (Thanks to Ann for helping in this one).

móro noun “ink” . Spanish, Catalan: “moor”. Portuguese: 1st person present tense of “to live”.

móta- noun "labour, toil". Spanish: “speck”, or “ marihuana”.

mundo (1) noun "bull". (2) noun "snout, nose, cape". Spanish: “world”.

muru- vb. "to slumber". Finnish: "crumb". Polish: "brick wall", genitive form of muru.


nácë interjection? “it is may be seeming”. Spanish: “is born”.

nauta adj. "bound, obliged". Latin: "sailor. Finnish: "bovine".

nec- prefix “without, -less”. Latin: "no".

néna adj. "wet”. Spanish: "girl".

vb. in pa.t. “was”. Latin: "no"; also an interrogative particle.

ni 1st person sg. pron. "I". Spanish: “neither”.

nisto noun "large woman". Portuguese: “in this”.

nosta noun "birth, birthday" (maybe not a valid word in Tolkien’s later Quenya because the meaning of the corresponding verb was changed from "give birth" to "beget"); nosta- vb., variously glossed "beget" or passive “be begotten”; in earlier "Qenya" the gloss was "give birth". Finnish: 2nd person imperative of "to lift".

nu prep. "under". Portuguese: “naked”.

núla adj. “dark, occult, mysterious”. Spanish: “null”.

nulla adj. "dark, dusky, obscure, secret". Italian: “nothing”.


oi adv. "ever". Portuguese: “hello”.

olla prep “over”. Spanish: “pot”. Finnish: "to be" (ollaa).

olor noun "dream". Spanish: “smell”.

onna noun "creature, child". Japanese: "woman".

órava- vb. "to have mercy". Finnish: "squirrel". Also a region in Poland and Slovakia: Orava .

orë noun "grain". Japanese: "me", used by men.

oro (1) noun “mount, mountain”. (2) vb. "rise". Spanish: “gold”. Also 1st person present tense of “to pray”.

orto noun "mountain-top". Spanish and Portuguese: “ortho (straight, right)”, from Greek ὀρθός.

otso cardinal "seven". Finnish: old word for "bear".


pa prep. "on" with reference to contact of surfaces, especially vertical surface (in the sense in which a picture hangs on a wall. Spanish: diminutive of “father”. Polish: "bye".

paca noun "paved floor, court". Spanish: “bale”, also how in Costa Rica we call the police.

palpa- vb. "to beat, batter". Spanish: “palpate”.

pan adv. “since” (in the sense of because). Spanish: "bread". Polish: "sir".

panda noun "enclosure"- The animal.

par- vb. “learn” (acquire information, not by experience or observation, but by communication, by the instruction, or by written accounts, of others). Spanish: "pair, even". Polish: "couples", genitive form of para.

pata- vb. “walk”. Spanish: "animal's leg". Finnish: "pot".

páva noun "mouth" (including tongue, lips and teeth). Spanish: "fringe". Hungarian: "peacock".

pelo noun “a boundary (fence)” . Spanish: "hair".

pica (1) noun "small spot, dot". (2) vb. "lessen, dwindle, waning". Spanish: "itch".

pontë (ponti-) noun "back, rear". Portuguese: "bridge".

punta noun "stopped consonant". Spanish: “tip”.


qual- vb. “to die”. Catalan: “which”.

quanta (1) ("q") adj. "full". (2) vb. “fill”. Latin: "how many".

qui conj. “if” . Latin: among several definitions: "how, who, which, that".


raita- (1) vb. "make network or lace". (2) vb. "catch in a net". (3) vb. “smile”. Finnish"stripe". 

rama- vb. "to shout". Spanish: “branch”. Polish: "frame.

Rána place-name "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon. The Etymologies gives Rana with a short vowel. Spanish: “frog”.

ranta noun "part". Finnish: "beach".

rauta noun "metalt". Finnish: "iron".

ráta- vb. “excel, surpass”. Spanish: “rat”.

ronda adj. “solid, firm”Spanish: “round”. Hungarian: "ugly".

rúna- vb. "[to] free". Spanish and in several languages: “rune”.


saca-  (1) vb. "pursue, look for, search". (2) vb. "draw, pull". Spanish: 3rd person sing. present tense of "to pull out".

san (1) adv. "then". (2) adv. ephemeral word for "so". Spanish: “saint...”.

sana (1) “that very thing (already referred to)”. (2) noun "day (24 hours)". Spanish: 3rd person present tense of “to heal”. Finnish: "word".

sanar noun "mind". Spanish: “to heal”.

sánë noun “pine”. Spanish: present subjuntive form of “to heal”.

sára (1) adj. "bitter". (2) adj. "fiery" (3) noun "stiff dry grass, bent". Italian: “will be”. Finnish: "sedge".

sarna adj. "of stone". Spanish: “scabies" (a skin disease). Polish: "roe deer".

se (1) pron. "he, she, it" also object "him, her, it", 3rd person sg. (2), preposition "at, in". Spanish: 3rd person pronoun.

ser- vb. "rest". Spanish: “to be”. Polish: "cheese",

si adv. “here”. Spanish: “if”.

adv. "now". Spanish: “yes”.

síma noun "mind, imagination". Finnish: "mead".

sól, noun ”helmet”. Spanish: “sun”. Polish: "salt".

sor, noun "eagle". Spanish: “sor (religious)”.


tál (tal-, as in "g.sg. talen"; in LotR-style Quenya this is rather the dative singular) noun "foot". Spanish: “such”.

talo adv. "thence". Finnish: "house".

tango noun "twang". The dance, of course!

tanya demonstrative "that". Hungarian: "small farm, ranch".

tanta (1) noun "harp". (2) (prob. adj.) "double". Spanish: “as much”. Norwegian: "aunt".

táta noun "hat". Spanish: colloquial form of “father". Polish: "dad.

te pron. "they, them". Spanish: 2nd person personal pronoun accusative/dative form. Polish: "these" (feminine/neuter).

telë- vb. "finish, end" (intransitive). Greek: prefix “from a distance”.

ten (1) pron. in dative “to them, for them”. (2) conj. "for". (4) vb. "hear". Spanish: imperative “have”. Polish: this (masculine).

tenta- vb. “point to, point out; indicate; direct toward, be directed toward”. Portuguese: 3rd person present tense of “to try”.

tinta- vb. "kindle, cause to sparkle". Spanish: “ink”.

tombo noun "gong, resonant". Spanish (Costa Rican variant): police-man.

torni noun "brothers". Finnish: "tower". Italian: 2nd person sing. present tense of "to return".

tuo noun "muscle, sinew, vigour, physical strength" . Italian: “your”.

turma noun "shield". Portuguese: "group". Finnish: "accident, death, destruction".


um- vb. "not to do, not to be". Portuguese: indefinite article “a".

un- intensive prefix used before qu. Spanishindefinite article “a” (masculine form).

úna adj. "deprived of, destitute, forlorn". Spanish: indefinite article “a” (feminine form).

urdu noun "death". An asian language.

urna noun "oven". LatinSpanish, Polish, Italian, Portuguese and probably more languages: "urn".

ursa noun “rage” (2) vb. “to rage”. Latin: “bear”.

usquë. noun "reek". Latin: "all the time; up to".

úva (1) vb. "will not". (2) vb. “impend, be imminent” – “nearly always in a bad sense: ‘threaten (to come)’ “, as in hrívë úva véna “winter is drawing near to us”-uva future tense ending. Spanish: “grape”. 


va prep. "from". Spanish and Portuguese: 3rd person present tense of "to go".

vaia noun "envelope". English: "a hoot".

vaina (1) adj. "clad". (2) adj., the “late” pronunciation of waina “blonde, fair of hair”. Spanish: "sheath".

-valta suffix "-less". Finnish: "power".

 ve (1) prep. "as, like". (2) pron. “we”. (3) apparently an ending used to derive adverbs from adjectives. Spanish: 2nd person imperative form of "to go".

vëa (1) adj. “seeming, apparent”. (2) adj. "adult, manly, vigorous". (3) noun "sea". (4) noun “wind”. Spanish: present subjuntive form of "to see".

véla (1) adv. “alike” (2) vb. "see (meet)". Spanish: "a sail"; "a candle".

vendë noun "maiden". Spanish and Portuguese: 3rd person present tense of "to sell".venta noun "chin". Spanish: "a sale".

verca adj. "wild". Finnish: "fabric", archaic word. veri noun "wife". Finnish: "blood".

vista (1) noun "air as substance". (2) vb. "change" (transitive). Spanish: "a view".


ya (1) relative pronoun "which, what" (2) prep. "as". (3) suffix of endearment (4) pronominal suffix “his” (and probably also “her, its”), said to be used in “colloquial Quenya. (5) adjectival ending, as in the word Quenya “Elvish” itself. Spanish: "now". Polish: "me" (written "ja", but it sounds the same).

yo conj. “and”. Spanish: nominative case of 1st person personal pronoun "I".